Fumiko Kaneko (金子 文子 Kaneko Fumiko, January 25, 1903 – July 23, 1926) was a Japanese anarchist and nihilist. She was convicted of plotting to assassinate members of the Japanese Imperial family.
In her testimony at her trial, she explained that she and Pak “thought of throwing a bomb [at the emperor] to show he too will die like any other human being,” and rejected “the concepts of loyalty to the emperor and love of nation” as “simply rhetorical notions that are being manipulated by the tiny group of privileged classes to fulfill their own greed and interests." Initially, this rejection of the emperor system may have led her to believe in an alternative political system, but after seeing the way members of other groups behaved, she came to believe that any leader, whether the emperor, or other government officials, or a completely new government under socialists, would equally abuse power dynamics and oppress the people. For her, “[revolution] simply means replacing one authority with another,” and since she believed that no system of authority could or would operate without oppression, it is logical that she eventually directed her activities towards abolishing all authority.Though she believed, in line with nihilistic thought, that it was not possible to cure the evils in the world, her actions as an anarchist reflect her belief that “even if we cannot embrace any social ideals, every one of us can find some task that is truly meaningful to us. It does not matter whether our activities produce meaningful results or not… this would enable us to bring out lives immediately in to harmony with our existence.”
She committed suicide in her prison cell.
Kanno Sugako (Japanese: 管野 須賀子), also called Suga (1881–1911), was an anarcho-feminist Japanese journalist by profession. She was the author of a series of articles about gender oppression, and a defender of freedom and equal rights for men and women.
In 1910, she was accused of treason by the Japanese government for her alleged involvement in what became known as the Kotoku incident, aimed at the assassination of Emperor Meiji. She was the first woman with the status of political prisoner to be executed in the history of modern Japan.
Noe Itō (伊藤 野枝 Itō Noe, January 21, 1895 – September 16, 1923) was a Japanese anarchist, social critic, author and feminist.
Itō graduated from Ueno Girls’ High School in March 1912, and joined the Bluestocking Society (青鞜社 Seitō-sha), producer of the feminist arts and culture magazine Seitō (青鞜) in 1915; she contributed until 1916. In her last year as editor-in-chief she practiced an inclusive attitude towards content; she “opened the pages to extended discussions of abortion, prostitution, and motherhood”. Itō wrote social criticism and novels, and translated writings of Emma Goldman (The Tragedy of Woman’s Emancipation, etc.).
On September 16, 1923, in the chaos immediately following the Great Kantō earthquake, according to writer and activist Harumi Setouchi, Itō, Ōsugi, and his 6 year old nephew were arrested, beaten to death and thrown into an abandoned well by a squad of military police. Noe Itō was 28 years old.
The killing of such high profile anarchists, along with a young child, became known as the Amakasu Incident, and sparked surprise and anger throughout Japan